What patterns do we see emerging in the old studies?

With Carlyle's 1849 book:
The focus seems to be on TRAIT theory, as he goes on to say that sincerity is something seen in the great man. And that thinking like a poet makes one a poet, so then thinking like a leader can do that for you as well. And that development is needed in order to be recognized by others as having a skill such as poetry.

Leaders/Great men went from being seen as GODS, messengers, poets and special literary geniuses to then again to priests , literate persons and then kings.

Galton 1869:

My understanding is that his theory is that genius or greatness is all hereditary. He has studied the greats and his conclusion is that most were past the age of 50. So one good thing he has done in this field is starting to look for commonalities among the greats. He also started to list that original contributions is also a sign. He starts off his book with a family tree. He has also, by looking at the table of contents, has grouped and identified great men who later on can be classified as leaders:
Musicians
Scientists
Judges
Statemen
Army Commanders
Literate Men
Oarsmen
Divines
Oarsmen
Wrestlers
Painters

He is also trying to suggest that another way is classify leaders by reputation and natural gifts. He gives examples of people with amazing memory abilities (Photographic memory) and talked about how it had been passed down genetically. Then he gives the example of how one who wanted to be a good blacksmith could train and get educated so that his skill reaches a max capability; however, some tasks will be beyond his reach. On the otherhand, there may be a person who was lazy for most of his life, but because of his natural gift of strength (Endomorph -body structure) he can easily do a task that is outside the limits of the other person.
How to be great according to him? Well it all begins when naturally gifted people put in "concentrated efforts" (p. 23, Galton)

An argument against this is:
- In The movie Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 5 (TMNT), Splinter (Rat), was put with 4 baby turtles, he developed a passion for martial arts and it passed on to the turtles, there was no hereditary link, but the common link was situation/environment/passion and interest aligned with concentrated effort.


Stogdill (1949):
How does one become a great leader, is it just because of traits?
No...: "It appears rather to be a working relationship among members of a group, in which the leader aquires status, through active participation and demonstration of his capacity for carrying cooperative tasks through to completion" ( p. 66)
-

The Traits aspect:
He is (Stogdill, 1948) is saying that most people who are able to do this (get people to cooperatively accomplish great things) usually have these things as well... "intelligence, alertness to the needs and motives of others, and insight into situations, ... responsibility, initiative, persistence and self-confidence" (p. 66).
- Splinter from the movie (TMNT) displayed great intelligence, when he learned martial arts by studying the book. Donetello did as well when diffusing the computer that was going to spread the destructive gas substance. Leo would often show insight into situations and brainstorm solutions with the group such as how to stop Shredder, by trying out the "Buck buck" game technique and they successfully knocked him off the building by executing that plan.