Ted Ed Video on What Transformational Leaders are: Ted Ed Video - Transformational Leaders

1. What questions come to mind when thinking of Charisma, transactive & transformational leadership - "Charisma, completing transactions, and transforming..."(Diana)

What comes to my mind is someone like Barack Obama or Malcolm X when I think of Charisma. The reason why is because they have such power in their speech and enthusiasm that they make people feel good and inspired to act and do things that they would not have done otherwise.

Is Charisma an inborn trait? According to Conger, (2004), if you do more of the things they do, you can increase your level of charisma.

How can I be more charismatic? Conger (2004) is suggesting that if you do more of the behaviours he lists of charismatic people you can increase your charisma level.

If you just fake charisma by saying and doing things that charismatic people do, would that help one be a more charismatic leader? Yes, according to Conger, 2004, do more of the things that charismatic leaders do.

Transactional Leadership
Isn't completing transactions something similar to banking and stuff you do with objects, not people? Isn't it selfish to just use people to do what you want to get done? Isn't that treating people like objects?

Does this mean that a leader first transforms herself and then her followers? What are the effective ways to transform others and ourselves? Does self-image, paradigms & self-affirmations have anything to do with this process?

2. What connections do we see between Weber & House?

It seems to me that both Weber & House are stressing the sacrificial nature of the leader (i.e., Weber focuses on what they are like; where as, House focuses on what charismatic leaders are like and on what they do (E.g, they are good at persuading, competent and sacrifice)) who aims at making sacrifices to help the team reach the goal(s) and ensure that the needs of the followers are taken into consideration (Conger, 2004; Antonakis, 2012).

The main difference I note is that Weber defined charismatic leadership, coined the term "charisma", and mostly just focused on characterisitcs of charismatic leaders and did not focus on identifying or explaining their behaviours.

House, looked what characteristics charismatic leaders have:
1. live their teachings in actions
2. Brave - willing to stand up against what everyone else is doing
3. Have high expectations of themselves and those around them
4. Self - esteem is high & so is their competence (Antonakis, 2012)

House, also looked at the skills of charismatic leaders:
1. Persuasive skills are high, they know how to arouse the emotions of their constituents & have them accomplish great things because they internalize the ideals of the leader.
2. High competence.
3. Sacrifice (Antonakis, 2012)

3. What connections do we see between Burns & Bass? (60m)
The main connection that I see with Burns and Bass is that they both focused on the belief that leadership can be defined as being two types of perspectives.

The first is the transactional type of leader and the other is the transformational type of leader.

Burns started off this process by identifying these two styles and writing about these two types in a general manner; however, Bass attempted to break down transactional leadership style into component parts. For example, he worked on explaining the behaviours involved in transactional leadership where she defines contingent rewards where by a leader makes an agreement with her constituents that if they produce a certain desired result, then the following rewards will be given to them (Avolio, 2004).

Both, Burns & Bass stress that transformational leaders provide INDIVIDUAL CONSIDERATION where they discover the needs, skills and goals of their constituents and strive to help them move up the hierarchy of Maslow's identified needs.

4. What are the key points of Charismatic leadership & generally what type of research (quantitative etc.) is being done in this area ? Any personal or public examples of this type of leader, give reasons why...

According to Conger (2004), the charasmatic leader is followed because:
  • Their vision is very compelling and people see that the person has amazing abilities that can even be considered as divine gifts (This relates to Triat Theory).
  • People think that their needs and interests will be met by going along with the leaders' mission.

Charasmatic Leaders do the following:
  • They analyze their environments to find weaknesses, needs or deficiencies and assess where their constituents are in terms of this situation
  • Based on their analysis they create and communicate their goals for the future
  • They lead by example by making sacrifices showing that they are wiling to do what it takes and as they make increasing sacrifices for the vision, their trust increases.
  • They have knowledge and expertise in the area they are analyzing.
  • They show sensitivity to what the constituents need and how they are feeling
(Conger, 2004).

Personal Example:
A colleague at work, who initiated the task of unionizing the workplace by contacting a union and getting the sign up cards and giving it to people to sign during work, putting himself at risk
(Conger, 2004)

Public Example:
Steve Jobs releasing iPod & iPads because he noticed a deficiency (that people want a tool that makes listening to music, reading and playing games easier) and communicated his vision by taking action.

5. What are the key points of Transactional leadership

& generally what type of research (quantitative etc.) is being done in this area?
Any personal or public examples of this type of leader, give reasons why...
I think that the main components of a transactional leader is that the focus is on:
  • completing a task with the help of another person
  • telling what is required and informing them of the positive consequence they will receive if the result is attained or the negative consequence if it is not.
(Avolio, 2004)

Personal Example:
  • Some teachers who give stickers, certificates and prizes if students score a certain mark on tests.

It seems that the research is quantitative (Avolio,2004)

6. What are the key points of Transformational leadership
& generally what type of research (quantitative etc.) is being done in this area?
Any personal or public examples of this type of leader, give reasons why...

It seems like transformational leaders are those that focus on:
  • Individual consideration: First getting to know the goals, needs and skills of their followers and taking them up the hierarchy of Maslow's needs to help them be more competent than themselves so that they can lead after they pass away.
  • They focus on the long term well being of the group, even at the sacrifice of their own self at times so that the group can benefit.
  • Also get people to be creative and think of new ways to get results
(Avolio, 2004).
  • According to Burns, the key with transformational leaders is that they "produce intended changes", exist in a place where they have many enemies & leave their place of work creating more leaders (University of Richmond, 2010)

Bass did lots of interviews to learn about this type of leadership as well as using a questionnaire & quantitative (Avolio, 2004).

Personal Example:
A sikh saint by the name of Ajit Singh who helped to train Baldev Singh who is now leading the congregation of Sikhs all over the world after the death of Ajit Singh. Baldev Singh has launched a magazine, a school, places of worship all over the world where teachers are teaching and is carrying out a project of creating a university to study the Sikh scriptures.

Yogi Bhajan, is also another example that comes to mind, he is often quoted as saying "I did not come to get followers, I came to create teachers". He was a teacher of kundalini yoga.

Public Examples:
Darren Hardy just posted a message on twitter saying that,"Lincoln was willing to do the unpopular, taking deliberate stands on conscience, enduring malicious public abuse & loss of friends, power & prestige & became the man who “saved the Union” & emancipated slaves. His willingness to go against the majority, to do what’s right & make tough calls is not only an important leadership trait for a president, but also for a CEO, entrepreneur, team leader, or leader of a family."

7. How can we visually show the main ideas of each of these leadership styles?




8. Key criticisms of charismatic leadership?
Lack of differentiation and description of what good and bad charisma is? (Avolio, 2004). The reply was that good charisma is socialized charisma which aims to better the group; on the other hand, personalized charisma - bring others down.

9. Key criticisms of transactional leadership?

10. Key criticisms of transformational leadership?

11. How does this theory relate to what we have already learned about trait, behaviour & contingency theories? (Charismatic leadership)

Charisma & Trait Theory

Weber's look at charismatic leadership relates to Trait theory because he was stressing that charismatic leaders have certain gifts/abilities that make them special (Antonakis, 2012)

Charisma & Behaviour Theory

Charismatic leadership theory however does not suggest that you have to have to have been born with charisma; however, if you try to do more of the behaviours of charismatic leaders, you can increase your own level of charisma (Conger, 2004), somewhat similar to the behaviour theorists. For instance, Conger says, "As a leader manifests a growing number of the behvaiours...the likelihood of an attribution of charisma increases"(p. 9).

Charisma & Contingency Theory

It relates to the contingency theories who also stress the importance of relations and showing care for the followers. (Conger, 2004)

12. How does this theory relate to what we have already learned about trait, behaviour & contingency theories? (Transactional leadership)

Transactional Leadership & Trait Theory


Transactional Leadership & Behaviour Theory



Transactional Leadership & Contingency Theory

This transactioal leadership style where there is such a focus on task completion reminds me of contingency theories such as McGregor's Theory X where the assumption of the leader is that people need to be coerced to do tasks, and have low motivation, thus need to be controlled by giving rewards and punishments.

In addition, The Michigan Studies & Fiedler's Contingency theory of effectiveness also indicates that there are two types of leadership orientations, one is task focused and the other is relationship oriented and this transactional theory definately is focused on the task focused orientation; where by, I think that what is being suggested by the Michigan studies the work of Fiedler, is that transactional leadership is not enough; instead, if leaders were to combine both task and relations they world be more effective.

13. How does this theory relate to what we have already learned about trait, behaviour & contingency theories? (Transformational leadership)

Transformational Leadership & Trait Theory:

  • Transformational leaders have certain special traits: caring & helpful (Avolio, 2004)

Transformational Leadership & Behaviour Theory:

  • Transformational leaders have certain special things that they do: creates leaders, creates & communicates vision, gives individualized attention to helping constituent reach their goals and use their skills, (Avolio, 2004). Creates change that is intentional & engages in participatory leadership ( University of Richmond, 2010).

Transformational Leadership &Contingency Theories:

  • Transformational leaders adapt and focus on both task and relations and know how to communicate according to the needs of their constituents along with individualized consideration helps them reach their full potential (Avolio, 2004).

14. Have my questions in #1 been answered, what other questions come to mind?
Yes my questions have been answers.
Other questions that now come to mind:

Bass was thinking that charisma is something that can be clearly defined and measured (Avolio, 2004). Then in that case he probably believed that we can take actions to improve it, I wonder what we can do to boost it?

I know that taking action or just imitating the behaviours of charismatic leadership theories will not be effective and long-lasting until our inner paradigms are changed (Proctor, 2014). Thus, how can we change our paradigms to embody more long lasting change in our being so that we are internally and externally a living charismatic leader?

Avolio, B. J. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership : SAGE Knowledge. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (pp. 1559–1567). SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from http://knowledge.sagepub.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/view/leadership/n356.xml

Conger, J. A. (2004). Charismatic Theory : SAGE Knowledge. In En (pp. 163–168). SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from http://knowledge.sagepub.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/view/leadership/n42.xml

Hardy, D. (2014). Darren Hardy - Lincoln was willing to do the unpopular, taking... Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/DarrenHardyFan/posts/10152724935552287

Proctor, B. (2014, May 10). Bob Proctor: Paradigms (Video #1 of 3) - YouTube. Bob Proctor: Paradigms. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VUwsObucuI

University of Richmond. (2010). James MacGregor Burns on Leadership - YouTube. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/bugXWk820B8

Based on Avolio's Chapter from book titled Full Range Leadership
Idealized Influence

Describe and summarize component and outcomes

Idealized influence leadership was attributed to leaders who set examples for showing determination, displaying extraordinary talents, taking risks, creating in followers a sense of empowerment, showing dedication to the cause, creating a sense of a joint mission, dealing with crises, using radical solutions, and engendering faith in others.

- behave in a manner that results in the leader being a role model for followers to emulate
- are able to gain the trust and confidence of their followers by:
a)consider others needs over their own
b)share risks
c) consistent in their actions
d) sacrifice is key b/c it shows you walk your talk
Give example from your own experience :

- provide students with several examples, complete work with them
- the manner in which we communicate with our students
- manager who follows safety requirements

Where would your component put on a continuum for passive or active form of leadership? Why?

- Active, because they are "doing", "showing", "sacrificing"

Where would you put your component on a continuum for effective and ineffective leadership? Why?
- very effective because it is leading others to ACT versus just sit passively and support.

Inspiring Motivation
Describe and summarize component and outcomes?
-building of self confidence, leaving that comfort zone and being motivated to achieve the leaders initial goal or vision.
-With respect to transformational leadership, inspirational motivation involves helping others by painting the picture of what is possible, encouraging them through language that it can be done, and demonstrating through action the first steps needed to get there

Give example from your own experience Where would your component put on a continuum for passive or active form of leadership? Why?
active because actions, commnications would be observed and followed

Where would you put your component on a continuum for effective and ineffective leadership? Why?

Effective leadership because leaders goal becomes everyone goals therefore it is collaborative and communicative response -all see the greater good / no self interest

(Jake & Others)

Intellectual Stimulation

Describe and summarize component and outcomes
- stimulate followers to be innovative and creative by: questioning assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations with new methods and perspectives
-followers also stimulate the leader by questioning some of the leaders decisions and by being allowed to think differently than the leader

Give example from your own experience
If there is an issue/poblem going on in a school... At a staff meeting, a principal will seek the opinions and solutions of the teachers and other staff in order to find a best possible solution to the problem...
Fire Drill Example

Where would your component put on a continuum for passive or active form of leadership? Why?
-Active because there is a lot of interaction between the leaders and the followers

Where would you put your component on a continuum for effective and ineffective leadership? Why?
- effective becasue it gives the constiuents the oppotunity to voice their own opinions in an environment that welcomes them
-allows all stakeholders to contribute to solving problems or creating change

(Morgan & Others)

Individualized Consideration

Describe and summarize component and outcomes
- treating others as individuals rather than as members of a group (Bass & Avolio, 1994, p.3)
- individual needs rather than group needs - looking at them as a whole person rather than just as another students
- taking on various roles depending on what is needed by constituents - coach, mentor, teacher, facilitator, confidant, counsellor
-continual process of improvement and development for the individuals
- continual learning opportunities
- fostering opportunities for learning to occur
- encouraging creativing and innovation
- communication is key - two way communication, important to have that discourse

Give example from your own experience
Treating students as indivduals within the group - EA working with students with disabilities - individualized practice
Full day kindergarten & the curriculum

Where would your component put on a continuum for passive or active form of leadership? Why?
active - contasntly making connections, listening, searching for opportunities for enrichment

Where would you put your component on a continuum for effective and ineffective leadership? Why?
Highly effective and highly exhausting - difficult in a class of 30 to know where everyone is at

(Lisa & Others)